1. Durian plantation period
The appropriate plantation period depends on the geography, not to plant too close or far from each other. The good plantation planning will facilitate the efficient management. Durian is the perennial fruit tree, which the trunk is high so the leaf is reaching out to photosynthesize.
Root area is the ground with enough area for the root to absorb nutrients, fertilizers and water. To plant the tree too close together, it snatches nutrients and water from each other. Moreover, lifting the bole of tree or give the narrow area for the root to spread would make it dries and dead (the tip of the leaf dries or the leaf will be half burnt when the weather is dried.) because the root has insufficient water or burnt by sunlight. Having shallow ground will not facilitate the spreading of root as the area is limited.
Phase of durian plantation
- The proper distance is 12 x 12 meters for the area where the rain is more than 6 months per year. The high rate of rainfall helps the branch to spread longer so it there is not enough distance between the trees, the fruit at the tip of bough will be fruited difficultly.
- Planting distance 10 x 12 meters is for the area with 6 months rain per year and the drought period more than 30 days continuously.
- Planting distance 10 x 10 meters is for the area with 4 months rain per year and the drought period more than 3 months continuously. This is because the less rainfall will make the branch spreads less than 5 meters from the bole of tree as the canopy has limited area. Moreover, less water causes the death of root so only the root near the bole is alive.
- The planting distance less than 10 meters requires the canopy management or branch to control the height. Leaf production should be in set and the restoration after branch pruning should be done. Moreover, the leaf should be taken care to avoid rust seaweed or moina that falls the leaf. Having the attached canopy causes the disease, fungi and moss to cover so the bark is wet and eaten by the worm. As a result, it obstructs flowering.
- Use Full House or Mozart to charge to water system at the ratio 1 ltr. of water per 5 rai (to facilitate drainage and minimize salty soil).
2. Preparing the ground and seedling
When moving the cultivated durian seedling in a cultivate bag to the plot that has been plowed, the organic matter will loss because of the severe physical change. Consequently, the condition does not good for the root of newly planted durian. The ground surface can be topped with humus and organic fertilizer 1 cm. per year. Further, it cannot be done during rainy season because it affects the root rot. Consequently, it does not match with the demand of the first year. Using Full House accelerates the deep ground which is good for the durian seedling’s root. The new root wants the good water drainage to minimize soil salinity and increase air vents to reduce the dead root and speed up the new ones. Due to the small size with few roots and leaves, leaf productions will be faster than the root because of nitrogen. The cause of big thin pale leaf is the malfunction of the root. The low numbers of leaf does not deliver sufficient secondary macronutrients to the leaflet and the leaflet has limited time to produce leaf texture and viridity. The leaflet becomes the mature leaf within 60 days, from the fully spread stage. Such this limited time, having more leaflet than mature leaf will obstruct the root to absorb the nutrient.
Size of durian seedling: The large seedling with multiple sets of leaves is better than the small seedling with one set of leaves, which dies easily in the untidy plot.
Leaf shedding is the symptom that the old leaf falls and remains fewer than the new leaflet, the bough and trunk dies. Therefore, growing durian during the first few years is difficult but the most important stage for durian plantation.
Soil: Use one tablespoon of Utah and Full House at 4 spots per each tree.
3. Caring for 1-2 years old durian and leaf producing
In the newly planted durian, the production of root and leaf will not be constant because of the different capacity of each tree, soil condition, soil drainage, and ventilation. The ground might not be sufficient for the new root.
Lifting the bole of durian tree is to prevent the root rot and simplify the flowering when the tree is 5-year-old.
The problem with durian seedling is the limited ground area so the leaf tip dries and falls before maturity. Thus, it affects the growth of bough and trunk. To produce the constant leaf of all trees and plots at the same time will grow the tree and control insect outbreaks, thrips and durian psyllid, during the young leaf phase efficiently. During the young leaf period, spray the chemical every 10 days. In case of no mature leaf, every 15 days is acceptable.
- Leaf: Spray Mommoth Fong Do 20 cc. + Mommoth Combi 20 cc. + Phyretoxa 20 cc. + Razim 20 cc. on the tree twice, every 10 days.
- Soil: Use 4 tablespoons of Full House and 4 tablespoons of Utah 10 per one tree (Fertilizer formula 16-16-16)
- Spray Mommoth Sugar Express 20 cc. + Mommoth Calcium Magnesium 20 cc. + Phyretoxa 20 cc. + Nordox 10 g. on the tree twice, every 15 days.
- Spray Mommoth Supreme (0-28-18) 20 cc. + Mommoth Calcium Magnesium 20 cc. + Phyretoxa 20 cc. + Nordox 10 g. on the tree twice, every 15 days.
Producing the leaf followed the first step will result in the second and third set of leaves. Control the height as the high grass is the source of destruction by green weevil and rose beetle. Wash the tree every 3 months with the washing set to prevent egg laying or the destruction of the long-horned beetle (the female long horned beetle lays the eggs in March, June and November) which makes the small bough will break or ruins the bark.
4. 3-5 years old durian tree - pruning is important
Proper pruning during this phase facilitates the flowering and fruitage planning very well.
The good bough is the bough with the right angle to the trunk.
Without pruning, the bough with the sharp angle will push the good bough so it delays flowering and weakens the trunk. It will also block the sunlight so the photosynthesis is inefficient which results in low sugar delivery to the root. Consequently, the root dies, the leaf falls, and the leaflet has low budding, which finally leads to the root rot. Then, when the root is week and the soil has high acid, phytophthora will ruin it severely
The appropriate time for pruning is at the end of drought season and the beginning of rainy season (end of April and May) After pruning, use the washing set to wash the tree to get rid of insects and disease before the production of the 2nd and 3rd set of leaves.
- Adjust soil condition with Perlka and Full House (to restore root and prevent phytophthora epiphytotic)
- Washing set: Use Nordox 10 g. + Zena 10 g. + Hybrid SB 10 cc.
Soil: Perlka + Utah 10 + Full House (for the good leaves set)
- *Nordox is mercurochrome to heal the wound and prevent infection
5. Water management for durian seedling
Durian requires sufficient water during the leaflet period as it needs nutrient from the soil which water is the key factor to deliver it. The new planted tree cannot bear the sunlight so the leaf is burnt as it is scattered and not in the set. Making the leaf in set will facilitate watering system so the leaf becomes tough.
Though watering system during drought season is important, water drainage during rainy season is also crucial. If the root has been immersed in water for a long time, the root will be rotten and the tree finally dies. Moreover, phytophthora will be spread widely. Therefore, drainage is very important. Making the canal at 1-2 meters lower than the bole of tree helps to drain water 10-20 km. per hour.
- Soil: Perlka + Full House + Utah 10 (to adjust soil condition for water drainage and increasing air vent at the water logged spot)